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LEVITRA (VARDENAFIL): PHARMACODYNAMICS
Effects on Blood Pressure
In a clinical pharmacology study of patients with erectile dysfunction, single doses of vardenafil 20 mg caused a mean maximum decrease in supine blood pressure of 7 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic (compared to placebo), accompanied by a mean maximum increase of heart rate of 4 beats per minute. The maximum decrease in blood pressure occurred between 1 and 4 hours after dosing. Following multiple dosing for 31 days, similar blood pressure responses were observed on Day 31 as on Day 1. Levitra (Vardenafil Hydrochloride) may add to the blood pressure lowering effects of antihypertensive agents.
Effects on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate when Levitra is Combined with Nitrates
A study was conducted in which the blood pressure and heart rate response to 0.4 mg nitroglycerin (NTG) sublingually was evaluated in 18 healthy subjects following pretreatment with Levitra 20 mg at various times before NTG administration. Levitra 20 mg caused an additional time-related reduction in blood pressure and increase in heart rate in association with NTG administration. The blood pressure effects were observed when Levitra 20 mg was dosed 1 or 4 hours before NTG and the heart rate effects were observed when 20 mg was dosed 1, 4, or 8 hours before NTG. Additional blood pressure and heart rate changes were not detected when Levitra 20 mg was dosed 24 hours before NTG.
Because the disease state of patients requiring nitrate therapy is anticipated to increase the likelihood of hypotension, the use of vardenafil by patients on nitrate therapy or on nitric oxide donors is contraindicated.
The effect of 10 mg and 80 mg vardenafil on QT interval was evaluated in a single-dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled (moxifloxacin 400 mg) crossover study in 59 healthy males (81% White, 12% Black, 7% Hispanic) aged 45-60 years. The QT interval was measured at one hour post dose because this time point approximates the average time of peak vardenafil concentration. The 80 mg dose of Levitra (four times the highest recommended dose) was chosen because this dose yields plasma concentrations covering those observed upon co-administration of a low-dose of Levitra (5 mg) and 600 mg BID of ritonavir. Of the CYP3A4 inhibitors that have been studied, ritonavir causes the most significant drug-drug interaction with vardenafil. No single correction method is known to be more valid than the other. In this study, the mean increase in heart rate associated with a 10 mg dose of Levitra (Vardenafil Hydrochloride) tablets compared to placebo was 5 beats/minute and with an 80 mg dose of Levitra the mean increase was 6 beats/minute.
Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of vardenafil and the active control moxifloxacin produced similar increases in QTc interval. This study, however, was not designed to make direct statistical comparisons between the drug or the dose levels. The clinical impact of these QTc changes is unknown.
In a separate postmarketing study of 44 healthy volunteers, single doses of 10 mg Levitra resulted in a placebo-subtracted mean change from baseline of QTcF (Fridericia correction) of 5 msec (90% CI: 2,8). Single doses of gatifloxacin 400 mg resulted in a placebo-subtracted mean change from baseline QTcF of 4 msec (90% CI: 1,7). When Levitra 10 mg and gatifloxacin 400 mg were co-administered, the mean QTcF change from baseline was additive when compared to either drug alone and produced a mean QTcF change of 9 msec from baseline (90% CI: 6,11). The clinical impact of these QT changes is unknown.
Effects on Exercise Treadmill Test in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
In two independent trials that assessed 10 mg (n=41) and 20 mg (n=39) vardenafil, respectively, Vardenafil HCl (Levitra) did not alter the total treadmill exercise time compared to placebo. The patient population included men aged 40-80 years with stable exercise-induced angina documented by at least one of the following: 1) prior history of MI, CABG, PTCA, or stenting (not within 6 months); 2) positive coronary angiogram showing at least 60% narrowing of the diameter of at least one major coronary artery; or 3) a positive stress echocardiogram or stress nuclear perfusion study.
Results of these studies showed that Levitra did not alter the total treadmill exercise time compared to placebo (10 mg Levitra vs. placebo: 433±109 and 426±105 seconds, respectively; 20 mg Levitra vs. placebo: 414±114 and 411±124 seconds, respectively). The total time to angina was not altered by Levitra when compared to placebo (10 mg Levitra vs. placebo: 291±123 and 292±110 seconds; 20 mg Levitra vs. placebo: 354±137 and 347±143 seconds, respectively). The total time to 1 mm or greater ST-segment depression was similar to placebo in both the 10 mg and the 20 mg Levitra groups (10 mg Levitra vs. placebo: 380±108 and 334±108 seconds; 20 mg Vardenafil HCl (Levitra) tablets vs. placebo: 364±101 and 366±105 seconds, respectively).
Effects on Vision
Single oral doses of phosphodiesterase inhibitors have demonstrated transient dose-related impairment of color discrimination (blue/green) using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test and reductions in electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave amplitudes, with peak effects near the time of peak plasma levels. These findings are consistent with the inhibition of PDE6 in rods and cones, which is involved in phototransduction in the retina. The findings were most evident one hour after administration, diminishing but still present 6 hours after administration. In a single dose study in 25 normal males, Levitra 40 mg, twice the maximum daily recommended dose, did not alter visual acuity, intraocular pressure, fundoscopic and slit lamp findings.
In another double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial, at least 15 doses of 20 mg vardenafil were administered over 8 weeks versus placebo to 52 males. Thirty-two (32) males (62%) of the patients completed the trial. Retinal function was measured by ERG and FM-100 test 2, 6 and 24 hours after dosing. The trial was designed to detect changes in retinal function that might occur in more than 10% of patients. Levitra (Vardenafil) did not produce clinically significant ERG or FM-100 effects in healthy men compared to placebo. Two patients on vardenafil in the trial reported episodes of transient cyanopsia (objects appear blue).
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